Two Decades of Inflation
After being largely dormant for the last decade, inflation roared back in 2021 due to various factors related to the pandemic and economic recovery. For perspective, it may be helpful to look at inflation over a longer period of time. During the 20-year period ending September 2021, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U), often called headline inflation, rose a total of 53.8%. While the prices of some items tracked the broad index, others increased or decreased at much different rates.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2021 (data through September 2021)
401(k) and IRA: A Combined Savings Strategy
Contributing to an employer-sponsored retirement plan or an IRA is a big step on the road to retirement, but contributing to both can significantly boost your retirement assets. A recent study found that, on average, individuals who owned both a 401(k) and an IRA at some point during the six-year period of the study had combined balances about 2.5 times higher than those who owned only a 401(k) or an IRA. And people who owned both types of accounts consistently over the period had even higher balances.1
Here is how the two types of plans can work together in your retirement savings strategy.
Convenience vs. Control
Employer-sponsored plans such as 401(k), 403(b), and 457(b) plans offer a convenient way to save through pre-tax salary deferrals, and contribution limits are high: $19,500 in 2021 ($20,500 in 2022) and an additional $6,500 if age 50 or older. Although the costs for investments offered in the plan may be lower than those offered in an IRA, these plans typically offer limited investment choices and have restrictions on control over the account.
IRA contribution limits are much lower: $6,000 in 2021 and 2022 ($7,000 if age 50 or older). But you can usually choose from a wide variety of investments, and the account is yours to control and keep regardless of your employment situation. If you leave your job, you can roll assets in your employer plan into your IRA.2 Whereas contributions to an employer plan generally must be made by December 31, you can contribute to an IRA up to the April tax filing deadline.
Matching and Diversification
Many employer plans match a percentage of your contributions. If your employer offers this program, it would be wise to contribute at least enough to receive the full match. Contributing more would be better, but you also might consider funding your IRA, especially if the contributions are deductible (see below).
Along with the flexibility and control offered by the IRA, holding assets in both types of accounts, with different underlying investments, could help diversify your portfolio. Diversification is a method used to help manage investment risk; it does not guarantee a profit or protect against investment loss.
Rules and Limits
Although annual contribution limits for employer plans and IRAs are separate, your ability to deduct traditional IRA contributions phases out at higher income levels if you are covered by a workplace plan: modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) of $66,000 to $76,000 for single filers and $105,000 to $125,000 for joint filers in 2021 ($68,000 to $78,000 and $109,000 to $129,000 in 2022).3 You can make nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA regardless of income.
Eligibility to contribute to a Roth IRA phases out at higher income levels regardless of coverage by a workplace plan: MAGI of $125,000 to $140,000 for single filers and $198,000 to $208,000 for joint filers in 2021 ($129,000 to $144,000 and $204,000 to $214,000 in 2022).
Source: Investment Company Institute, 2021
Contributions to employer-sponsored plans and traditional IRAs are generally made on a pre-tax or tax-deductible basis and accumulate tax deferred. Distributions are taxed as ordinary income and may be subject to a 10% federal income tax penalty if withdrawn prior to age 59½ (with certain exceptions). Nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA are not taxable when withdrawn, but any earnings are subject to ordinary income tax. Required minimum distributions (RMDs) from employer-sponsored plans and traditional IRAs must begin for the year you reach age 72 (70½ if you were born before July 1, 1949). However, you are generally not required to take distributions from an employer plan as long as you still work for that employer.
Roth IRA contributions are not deductible, but they can be withdrawn at any time without penalty or taxes. To qualify for the tax-free and penalty-free withdrawal of earnings, Roth IRA distributions must meet a five-year holding requirement and take place after age 59½ (with certain exceptions). Original owners of Roth IRAs are exempt from RMDs. Beneficiaries of all IRAs and employer plans must take RMDs based on their age and relationship to the original owner.
1) Employee Benefit Research Institute, 2020
2) Other options when separating from an employer include leaving the assets in your former employer’s plan (if allowed), rolling them into a new employer’s plan, or cashing out (usually not wise).
3) If you are not covered by a workplace plan but your spouse is covered, eligibility phases out at MAGI of $198,000 to $208,000 for joint filers in 2021 ($204,000 to $214,000 in 2022).
P/E Ratios Offer Multiple Perspectives on Value
Many factors go into decisions on buying or selling shares of a particular stock, but the price/earnings (P/E) ratio can be a helpful starting point for evaluating whether a company’s stock is under- or overpriced. The P/E ratio is calculated by dividing a stock’s current price per share by the company’s earnings per share over a 12-month period. This ratio quantifies what investors may be willing to pay for one dollar of earnings.
For example, a P/E of 20 means an investor would pay $20 for every $1 the company earns over the 12-month period. By this standard, a stock with a P/E of 25 could be considered more “expensive” than a stock with a P/E of 20, regardless of the share price. A higher multiple also indicates that investors may expect higher growth from the company compared to the overall market.
Past and Future
There are two main types of P/E ratios. Trailing P/E is based on the company’s actual reported earnings per share for the previous 12 months. Because earnings are reported quarterly, that part of the equation will generally remain the same for the entire three-month period, but the stock price may change every trading day.
Forward P/E is based on the company’s projected earnings over the next 12 months. The forward P/E can also fluctuate with stock prices and as earnings projections are updated.
Trailing P/E is generally considered a more objective metric than forward P/E, because earnings projections are essentially opinions that may not turn out to be accurate. However, some investors prefer to focus on forward P/E, because a company’s past performance may have little to do with its future prospects.
Use Ratios Wisely
Knowing a company’s P/E ratio may provide some insight, but only if you use it to make appropriate comparisons. It is generally more meaningful to compare ratios of companies in the same industry or one company against the industry average. This is because P/E ratios can vary widely among industries and may also change for an entire industry as it faces challenges or goes in or out of favor with investors.
You might also compare a company’s current and past performance, but keep in mind that P/E ratios typically rise and fall with stock prices; if prices rise and earnings stay about the same, P/E ratios increase, and vice versa. So an increase or decrease in a company’s P/E ratio that moves with the broader market may not tell you much about the company’s performance.
On the other hand, a substantial change in a company’s P/E ratio that is not in step with the market could be caused by an unexpected increase or decrease in reported or projected earnings, or by a shift in investor confidence in the company.
Different Industries, Different Ratios
Source: FactSet, October 1, 2021. The S&P 500 is an unmanaged group of securities that is considered to be representative of the stock market in general. The performance of an unmanaged index is not indicative of the performance of any specific investment. Individuals cannot invest directly in an index. A portfolio invested only in companies in a particular industry or market sector may not be sufficiently diversified and could be subject to a significant level of volatility and risk.
As of October 1, 2021, the average forward 12-month P/E ratio for stocks listed in the S&P 500 was 20.1. This is significantly higher than the five-year average of 18.3 and the 10-year average of 16.4.1 But that may or may not mean that the market as a whole is overpriced.
It’s possible that earnings projections could be off by a wide margin — and that P/E ratios could be more difficult for investors to interpret — until the disruptive effects of the pandemic are well behind us. In fact, it’s generally a good idea to consider additional types of data, such as dividends and longer-term growth expectations, when evaluating potential stock investments.
The return and principal value of stocks fluctuate with changes in market conditions. Shares, when sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost.
1) FactSet, October 1, 2021
Four Basic Principles of Financial Literacy
It is widely recognized that financial literacy impacts a person’s overall economic success. In fact, studies have shown that individuals who are exposed to economic and financial education at an early age are more likely to exhibit positive financial behaviors when they are older (e.g., maintaining high credit scores, accumulating wealth). As a result, many states are requiring high school students to take a course in either economics or personal finance before they graduate.1
Whether you are just starting out and beginning to manage your own finances or simply want to stay on top of your current financial situation, it’s important to always keep these basic principles of financial literacy in mind.
1. Create a budget and stick with it. A budget helps you stay on track with your finances. Start by identifying your income and expenses. Next, compare the two totals to make sure you are spending less than you earn. Hopefully, your budget is still on the right track. If you find that your expenses outweigh your income, you’ll need to make some adjustments. Finally, while straying from your budget from time to time is normal, once you have a solid budget in place it’s important to try to stick with it.
2. Set financial goals. Setting goals is an important part of life, particularly when it comes to your finances. Short-term goals may include saving for a new car or building an emergency fund, while long-term goals may take more time to achieve (e.g., saving for a child’s education or retirement). Over time, your personal or financial circumstances will most likely change, so you’ll need to be ready to make adjustments and reprioritize your goals as needed.
3. Manage your credit and debt. Reducing debt is part of any healthy financial plan. Whether you have student loan debt, an auto loan, and/or a credit-card balance, you’ll want to pay it down as quickly as possible. Start by tracking all of your balances while being mindful of interest rates and hidden fees. Next, optimize your repayments by paying off any high-interest debt first and/or taking advantage of a debt consolidation/refinancing program.
4. Protect yourself. When it comes to insurance coverage, are you adequately protected? Having the appropriate amount of insurance to help protect yourself against possible losses is an important part of any financial strategy. Your insurance needs will depend on your individual circumstances and can change over time. As a result, you’ll want to make sure your coverage properly aligns with your income and family/personal circumstances.
12020 Survey of the States, Council for Economic Education
IRS Circular 230 disclosure: To ensure compliance with requirements imposed by the IRS, we inform you that any tax advice contained in this communication (including any attachments) was not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, for the purpose of (i) avoiding tax-related penalties under the Internal Revenue Code or (ii) promoting, marketing or recommending to another party any matter addressed herein.
Prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. Copyright 2021