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Playing Catch-Up with Your 401(k) or IRA

A recent survey of baby boomers (ages 53 to 69) found that just 24% were confident they would have enough money to last throughout retirement. Forty-five percent had no retirement savings at all, and of those who did have savings, 42% had saved less than $100,000.1

Your own savings may be on more solid ground, but regardless of your current balance, it’s smart to keep it growing. If you’re 50 or older, you could benefit by making catch-up contributions to tax-advantaged retirement accounts. You might be surprised by how much your nest egg could grow late in your working career.

Contribution limits

The federal contribution limit in 2016 and 2017 for all IRAs combined is $5,500, plus a $1,000 catch-up contribution for those 50 and older, for a total of $6,500. An extra $1,000 might not seem like much, but it could make a big difference by the time you’re ready to retire (see table). You have until the April 18, 2017, tax filing deadline to make IRA contributions for 2016. The sooner you contribute, the more time the funds will have to pursue potential growth.

The deferral limit in 2016 and 2017 for employer-sponsored retirement plans such as 401(k), 403(b), and most 457(b) plans is $18,000, plus a $6,000 catch-up contribution for workers 50 and older, for a total of $24,000. However, some employer-sponsored plans may have maximums that are lower than the federal contribution limit. Unlike the case with IRAs, contributions to employer-sponsored plans must be made by the end of the calendar year, so be sure to adjust your contributions early enough in the year to take full advantage of the catch-up opportunity.

The following table shows the amount that a 50-year-old might accrue by age 65 or 70, based on making maximum annual contributions (at current rates) to an IRA or a 401(k) plan:

Potential Savings a 50-Year-Old Could Accumulate Without Catch-Up With Catch-Up
IRA By Age 65 $128,018 $151,294
By Age 70 $202,321 $239,106
401(k) By Age 65 $418,697 $558,623
By Age 70 $662,141 $882,854

Example assumes a 6% average annual return. This hypothetical example of mathematical compounding is used for illustrative purposes only and does not represent any specific investment. It assumes contributions are made at end of the calendar year. Rates of return vary over time, particularly for long-term investments. Fees and expenses are not considered and would reduce the performance shown if they were included. Actual results will vary.

Special 403(b) and 457(b) plan rules

403(b) and 457(b) plans can (but aren’t required to) provide their own special catch-up opportunities. The 403(b) special rule, available to participants with at least 15 years of service, may permit an additional $3,000 annual deferral for up to five years (certain additional limits apply). A participant can use this special rule and the age 50 catch-up rule in the same year. Therefore, a participant eligible for both could contribute up to $27,000 to his or her 403(b) plan account (the $18,000 regular deferral limit, plus the $3,000 special catch-up, plus the $6,000 age 50 catch-up).

The 457(b) plan special rule allows participants who have not deferred the maximum amount in prior years to contribute up to twice the normal deferral limit (that is, up to $36,000 in 2016 and 2017) in the three years prior to reaching the plan’s normal retirement age. (However, these additional catch-up contributions can’t exceed the total of the prior years’ unused deferrals.) 457(b) participants who elect to use this special catch-up rule cannot also use the age 50 catch-up rule in the same year.

1“Boomer Expectations for Retirement 2016,” Insured Retirement Institute.

The Giving Season: Six Tips for Making Smart and Effective Charitable Donations This Holiday Season

The holidays are a popular time for charitable donations. With so many charities to choose from, it’s more important than ever to ensure that your donation is well spent. Here are six tips that can help you make smart and effective charitable donations.

1. Choose your charities wisely

Choosing worthy organizations that support the causes you care about can be tricky, but it doesn’t have to be time-consuming. There are several well-known organizations that rate and review charities, as well as provide useful tips and information on how to donate and choose a charity (see sidebar). To get started, here are some things to consider:

  • How the charity plans to use your gift. Contact the charity by phone or go online to find information about the charity’s mission, accomplishments, financial status, and future growth.
  • How much the charity spends on administrative costs. If a charity has higher-than-average administrative costs, it may be spending less on programs and services than it should. This could also be a sign that the charity is in serious financial trouble. In addition, if a charity uses for-profit telemarketers, then it may get very little of the money it raises, so ask how much of your donation the charity will actually receive.
  • The legitimacy of the charity. Take the time to check out the charity before you donate. Ask for identification when approached by a solicitor, and never give out your Social Security number, credit-card number, bank account number, account password, or personal information over the phone or in response to an email you didn’t initiate.
  • How much you can afford to give to the charity. Stick to your giving goals and only give what you can afford. Legitimate fundraisers will not try to pressure you and will be happy to send information that can help you make an informed decision regarding your donation.

2. Maximize your donation through a matching gift

If your employer offers a program that matches charitable gifts made by employees, you can maximize your charitable donations. Some matching gift programs may have specific guidelines — for example, they may only match a gift up to a certain dollar limit, and the charity may need to provide additional information.

3. Make automatic donations

If you’re looking for an easy way to donate regularly to a favorite charity, consider making automatic donations from a financial account. Automatic donations can benefit charities by potentially lowering fundraising costs and by establishing a foundation of regular donors. You’ll also benefit, since spreading your donations throughout the year may enable you to give more and simplify your record keeping.

4. Look for alternatives to cash donations

Although cash donations are always welcome, charities also encourage other types of gifts. For example, if you meet certain requirements, you may be able to give stock, direct gifts from your IRA, real estate, or personal property. Keep in mind that you’ll want to check with your financial professional to assess potential income and estate tax consequences based on your individual circumstances. Other alternatives to cash donations include volunteering your time and using your talents to improve the lives of others in your community.

5. Consider estate planning strategies when gifting

Another option is to utilize estate planning to make a charitable gift. For example, you might leave a bequest in your will; give life insurance; or use a charitable gift annuity, charitable remainder annuity trust, or charitable unitrust that may help you give away the asset now, while retaining a lifetime interest. Check with your financial or tax professional regarding any potential estate or tax benefits or consequences before making this type of gift.

6. Remember the importance of record keeping

If you itemize when you file your taxes, you can deduct donations you’ve made to a tax-qualified charity — however, you must provide proper documentation of your donation to the IRS. Keep copies of cancelled checks, bank statements, credit-card statements, or receipts showing the charity’s name, date of your donation, and contribution amount. For donations or contributions of $250 or more, you’ll need a detailed written acknowledgment from the charity. For more information and a list of specific record-keeping requirements, see IRS Publication 526, Charitable Contributions.

Tax Credits and Deductions for College

College students and their parents need all the help they can get to pay for college. Here are four college-related federal tax benefits that might help put a few more dollars back in your pocket when you file your 2016 tax return.

American Opportunity credit

The American Opportunity Tax Credit is worth up to $2,500 per year for a student’s first four years of college. The credit applies only to qualified tuition and fees (room and board expenses aren’t eligible) and is calculated as 100% of the first $2,000 of qualified tuition and fees plus 25% of the next $2,000 of such expenses.

There are two main eligibility restrictions. First, the student must be enrolled at least half-time. Second, a parent’s modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) must be below a certain level. In 2016, a full tax credit is available to single filers with a MAGI of $80,000 or less and joint filers with a MAGI of $160,000 or less; a partial credit is available to single filers with a MAGI between $80,000 and $90,000 and joint filers with a MAGI between $160,000 and $180,000.

The American Opportunity credit can be claimed on behalf of multiple students on a single tax return in the same year, provided each student qualifies independently. For example, if Mom and Dad have triplets in college and each meets the credit’s requirements, then Mom and Dad can claim a total credit of $7,500 ($2,500 x 3).

Lifetime Learning credit

The Lifetime Learning credit is another education tax credit that’s worth up to $2,000 per year per tax return. As its name implies, the Lifetime Learning credit is for courses taken throughout one’s lifetime, whether to acquire or improve job skills. As such, it is broader than the American Opportunity credit; for example, it’s available to graduate students and to students enrolled less than half-time. The Lifetime Learning credit is calculated as 20% of the first $10,000 of qualified tuition and fees (again, room and board expenses aren’t eligible).

There are also income restrictions. In 2016, a full credit is available to single filers with a MAGI of $55,000 or less and joint filers with a MAGI of $111,000 or less; a partial credit is available to single filers with a MAGI between $55,000 and $65,000 and joint filers with a MAGI between $111,000 and $131,000.

One disadvantage of the Lifetime Learning credit is that it’s limited to a total of $2,000 per tax return per year, regardless of the number of students who qualify in a family in a given year. So, in the example above, Mom and Dad would be able to take a total Lifetime Learning credit of $2,000, not $6,000, in 2016. Also, the American Opportunity credit and the Lifetime Learning credit can’t be taken in the same year for the same student — you have to pick one or the other.

Tuition and fees deduction

Undergraduate and graduate students (or their parents) may be able to deduct qualified tuition and fees paid in 2016. A $4,000 deduction is available to single filers with a MAGI of $65,000 or less and joint filers with a MAGI of $130,000 or less, and a $2,000 deduction is available to single filers with a MAGI between $65,000 and $80,000 and joint filers with a MAGI between $130,000 and $160,000. An important note: you can’t use the same education expenses to qualify for both a tuition deduction and an education tax credit.

Student loan interest deduction

The student loan interest deduction lets undergraduate and graduate borrowers deduct up to $2,500 of interest paid on qualified student loans during the year, provided income limits are met. In 2016, a full deduction is available to single filers with a MAGI of $65,000 or less and joint filers with a MAGI up to $130,000; a partial deduction is available for single filers with a MAGI between $65,000 and $80,000 and joint filers with a MAGI between $130,000 and $160,000.

Comparison chart: 2016 figures

Maximum Credit / Deduction Income Limits for Maximum
American Opportunity credit $2,500 $80,000 or less single; $160,000 or less joint filer
Lifetime Learning credit $2,000 $55,000 or less single; $111,000 or less joint filer
Deduction for tuition and fees $4,000 $65,000 or less single; $130,000 or less joint filer
Deduction for student loan interest $2,500 $65,000 or less single; $130,000 or less joint filer

For more information, see IRS Publication 970, Tax Benefits for Education.

How can technology help me manage my money?

It may seem that there’s an app or software program for every purpose, and that includes managing your money. Here are some examples where technology may be useful in helping you get a handle on your money.

Creating a budget: There are multiple apps available that enable you to input your monthly income and expenses to generate a budget that fits your needs. Plus, some programs are able to categorize and track transactions, which could help you see exactly how much you spend in certain areas on a month-to-month basis.

Setting reminders: Do you occasionally forget to pay a particular bill? Or are you looking for a regular reminder to keep an eye on your account balances? Look for an app that lets you schedule reminders that suit your needs, whether it’s an alarm that goes off for monthly bills or a service that automates payments you might otherwise forget to make.

Digitizing services: You’re probably aware of your bank’s direct-deposit services, but did you know that you can send payments, request refunds, and view transaction history using your bank’s mobile app? You can also find apps that feature calculators designed to help you make investment decisions, as well as determine your net worth, calculate the time value of your money, and estimate your insurance needs, among other things.

Shopping (and saving): Some apps are designed specifically to help you save money in a variety of ways, from searching for the best local deals to calculating the cost of driving from point A to point B. If you’d like to dial back your spending, look for an app that can help you cut costs. For example, apps can compare the cost of groceries at one store against another, or help you find the lowest gas prices in your area. That way, you can put the extra money you have from being a savvy shopper toward a long-term goal, such as retirement.

With some exploration, you may find additional money-related apps. But bear in mind that even though many apps and services promise security, technology isn’t always reliable, and you could fall victim to hackers. Think carefully before you provide information pertaining to your bank account and income/spending history.

What do you need to know about chip-card technology?

When you’re checking out items at the store, should you insert your card into the payment terminal? These days, as the use of chip-card technology grows, the answer to that question is less clear. The computer chip now embedded in debit and credit cards uses EMV (Europay, MasterCard, and Visa) technology, which is meant to reduce fraud at physical retail stores (as opposed to online shops). But because businesses aren’t required to upgrade their terminals, it’s confusing to figure out what to do at the register. Here are answers to some questions you might have about chip cards.

How does it work? Magnetic strip cards contain information within the strip, so it’s easy for a thief to “capture” that information and use it to accrue charges without the cardholder’s knowledge. By contrast, the chip card generates a unique, specific code for each transaction that cannot be reused.

Why does it take longer to check out? The unique code generated by the chip for each transaction is sent to the bank by the payment terminal. The bank matches the code to an identical one-time code and sends it back as verification for the transaction. As a result, it takes a few seconds longer to check out using a chip card because it takes time for the information to be transmitted.

Why aren’t some terminals working yet? You might notice that terminals in some stores are equipped with a chip-card reader, but you’re told you can’t use it. These terminals are awaiting chip-card certification, which can take several months to process. Until their terminals are certified, retailers are responsible for any fraudulent charges.

How much longer will I have to carry a physical card? The answer to this question isn’t clear. However, it’s important to note that terminals with upgraded chip-card technology are also equipped with technology that can accept wireless near-field communication. This allows data to be exchanged between two different devices (e.g., a cell phone and a terminal) that are a short distance away. This means that one day, instead of swiping or inserting a card at the checkout, you might just be tapping the terminal to make payments.

 

IRS Circular 230 disclosure: To ensure compliance with requirements imposed by the IRS, we inform you that any tax advice contained in this communication (including any attachments) was not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, for the purpose of (i) avoiding tax-related penalties under the Internal Revenue Code or (ii) promoting, marketing or recommending to another party any matter addressed herein.

Prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. Copyright 2016

 

IRS Circular 230 disclosure: To ensure compliance with requirements imposed by the IRS, we inform you that any tax advice contained in this communication (including any attachments) was not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, for the purpose of (i) avoiding tax-related penalties under the Internal Revenue Code or (ii) promoting, marketing or recommending to another party any matter addressed herein.

Prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. Copyright 2016