Financial Mistakes People Make at Different Ages
There’s a saying that with age comes wisdom, but this may not always be true in the financial world. As people move through different life stages, there are new opportunities–and potential pitfalls–around every corner.
In your 20s
Living beyond your means. It’s tempting to want all the latest and greatest in gadgets, entertainment, and travel, but if you can’t pay for most of your wants up front, then you need to rein in your lifestyle. If you take on too much debt–or don’t work diligently to start paying off the debt you have–it can hold you back financially for a long, long time.
Not saving for retirement. You’ve got plenty of time, so what’s the rush? Well why not harness that time to work for you. Start saving a portion of your annual pay now and your 67-year-old self will thank you.
Not being financially literate. Many students graduate from high school or college without knowing the basics of money management. Learn as much as you can about saving, budgeting, and investing now so you can benefit from it for the rest of your life.
In your 30s
Being house poor. Whether you’re buying your first home or trading up, don’t buy a house that you can’t afford, even if the bank says you can. Build in some wiggle room for a possible dip in household income that could result from switching jobs, going back to school, or leaving the workforce to raise a family.
Not protecting yourself with life and disability insurance. Life is unpredictable. What would happen if one day you were unable to work and earn a paycheck? Let go of the “it-won’t-happen-to-me” attitude. Though the cost and availability of life insurance depend on several factors including your health, the younger you are when you buy insurance, the lower your premiums will likely be.
Not saving for retirement. Okay, maybe your 20s passed you by in a bit of a blur and retirement wasn’t even on your radar screen. But now that you’re in your 30s, it’s critical to start saving for retirement. Wait much longer, and it can be hard to catch up. Start now, and you still have 30 years or more to save.
In your 40s
Trying to keep up with the Joneses. Appearances can be deceptive. The nice homes, cars, vacations, and “stuff” that others have might make you wonder whether you should be buying these things, too. But behind the scenes, your neighbors could be taking on a lot of debt. Take pride in your savings account instead.
Funding college over retirement. In your 40s, saving for your children’s college costs over your own retirement is a mistake. If you have limited funds, set aside a portion for college but earmark the majority for retirement. Then sit down with your teenager and have a frank discussion about academic options that won’t break the bank–for either of you.
Not having a will or an advance medical directive. No one likes to think about death or catastrophic injury, but these documents can help your loved ones immensely if something unexpected should happen to you.
In your 50s and 60s
Co-signing loans for adult children. Co-signing means you’re on the hook–completely–if your child can’t pay, a situation you don’t want to find yourself in as you’re getting ready to retire.
Raiding your home equity or retirement funds. It goes without saying that doing so will prolong your debt and/or reduce your nest egg.
Not quantifying your retirement income. As you approach retirement, you should know how much you can expect from Social Security (at age 62, at your full retirement age, and at age 70), pension income, and your personal retirement savings.
Not understanding health-care costs in retirement. Before you turn age 65, review what Medicare does and doesn’t cover, and how gap insurance policies fit into the picture.
Age-Based Tips for Making the Most of Your Retirement Savings Plan
No matter what your age, your work-based retirement savings plan can be a key component of your overall financial strategy. Following are some age-based points to consider when determining how to put your plan to work for you.
Just starting out
Just starting your first job? Chances are you face a number of financial challenges. College loans, rent, and car payments all compete for your hard-earned paycheck. Can you even consider contributing to your retirement plan now? Before you answer, think about this: The time ahead of you could be your greatest advantage. Through the power of compounding–or the ability of investment returns to earn returns themselves–time can work for you.
Example: Say at age 20, you begin investing $3,000 each year for retirement. At age 65, you would have invested $135,000. If you assume a 6% average annual rate of return, you would have accumulated $638,231 by that age. However, if you wait until age 45 to invest that $3,000 each year, and earn the same 6% annual average, by age 65 you would have invested $60,000 and accumulated $110,357. By starting earlier, you would have invested $75,000 more but would have accumulated more than half a million dollars more. That’s compounding at work. Even if you can’t afford $3,000 a year right now, remember that even smaller amounts add up through compounding.1
Finally, time offers an additional benefit to young adults: the ability to potentially withstand greater short-term losses in pursuit of long-term gains. You may be able to invest more aggressively than your older colleagues, placing a larger portion of your retirement portfolio in stocks to strive for higher long-term returns.2
Getting married and starting a family
At this life stage, even more obligations compete for your money–mortgages, college savings, higher grocery bills, home repairs, and child care, to name a few. Although it can be tempting to cut your retirement plan contributions to help make ends meet, try to avoid the temptation. Retirement needs to be a high priority throughout your life.
If you plan to take time out of the workforce to raise children, consider temporarily increasing your plan contributions before leaving and after you return to help make up for the lost time and savings.
Also, while you’re still decades away from retirement, you may have time to ride out market swings, so you may still be able to invest relatively aggressively in your plan. Be sure to fully reassess your risk tolerance before making any decisions.2
Reaching your peak earning years
This stage of your career brings both challenges and opportunities. College bills may be invading your mailbox. You may have to take time off unexpectedly to care for yourself or a family member. And those pesky home repairs never seem to go away.
On the other hand, with 20+ years of experience behind you, you could be earning the highest salary of your career. Now may be an ideal time to step up your retirement savings. If you’re age 50 or older, you can contribute up to $24,000 to your plan in 2015, versus a maximum of $18,000 if you’re under age 50. (Some plans impose lower limits.)
Preparing to retire
It’s time to begin thinking about when and how to tap your plan assets. You might also want to adjust your allocation, striving to protect more of what you’ve accumulated while still aiming for a bit of growth.3
A financial professional can become a very important ally at this life stage. Your discussions may address health care and insurance, taxes, living expenses, income-producing investment vehicles, other sources of income, and estate planning.4
You’ll also want to familiarize yourself with required minimum distributions (RMDs). The IRS requires you to begin taking RMDs from your plan by April 1 of the year following the year you reach age 70½, unless you continue working for your employer.5
Throughout your career, you may face other decisions involving your plan. Would Roth or traditional pretax contributions be better for you? Should you consider a loan or hardship withdrawal from your plan, if permitted, in an emergency? When should you alter your asset allocation? Along the way, a financial professional can provide an important third-party view, helping to temper the emotions that may cloud your decisions.
1 This hypothetical example is for illustrative purposes only. Investment returns will fluctuate and cannot be guaranteed.
2 All investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal, and there can be no assurance that any investment strategy will be successful. Investments offering a higher potential rate of return also involve a higher level of risk.
3 Asset allocation is a method used to help manage investment risk; it does not guarantee a profit or protect against a loss.
4 There is no assurance that working with a financial professional will improve your investment results.
5 Withdrawals from your retirement plan prior to age 59½ (age 55 in the event you separate from service) may be subject to regular income taxes as well as a 10% penalty tax.
Five Steps to Tame Financial Stress
Do you sometimes lie awake at night thinking about bills that need to be paid? Does it feel as though you’re drowning in debt? If this describes you, you might take solace in the fact that you’re not alone. A recent report released by the American Psychological Association (APA) showed that 72% of adults feel stressed about money at least some of the time, and 22% said the amount of stress they experienced was extreme.1
The bad news is that stress can be responsible for multiple health problems, including fatigue, headaches, and depression. And, over time, stress can contribute to more significant health issues, including high blood pressure and heart disease.2 The good news is that there are some simple steps you can take to reduce or eliminate some of the financial stress in your life.
1. Stop and assess
The first step in reducing financial stress is to look at your situation objectively, creating a snapshot of your current financial condition. Sit down and list all of your financial obligations. Start with the items that are causing you the most stress. For debts, include the principal due, the applicable interest rate, and the minimum payment amount. If you’re not already doing so, review your bank account and credit-card statements to track where your money is going. The goal here is not to solve the problem; it’s to determine and document the scope of the problem. You might find that this step alone significantly helps alleviate your stress level (think of it as facing your fears).
2. Talk to your spouse
If you’re married, talk to your spouse. It’s important to communicate with your spouse for several reasons. First, you and your spouse need to be on the same financial page; any steps you take to improve your situation are going to be most effective if pursued jointly. Second, not being on the same page as your spouse is only going to lead to additional stress. In fact, the APA report showed that 31% of spouses and partners say that money is a major source of conflict or tension in their relationship.3 Additionally, your spouse or partner can be a valuable source of emotional support, and this emotional support alone can lower stress levels.4 If you’re not married, family or friends might fill this role.
3. Take control
First, go back and take a look at where your money is going. Are there changes you can make that will free up funds you can save or apply elsewhere? Even small changes can make a difference. And exerting control over your situation to any degree can help reduce your overall stress level. Start building a cash reserve, or emergency fund, by saving a little bit each paycheck. Think of the emergency fund as a safety net; just knowing it’s there will help reduce your ongoing level of stress. Work up to a full spending plan (yes, that’s another way of saying a budget) where you prioritize your expenses, set spending goals, and then stick to them going forward.
4. Think longer term
Look for ways to reduce debt long term. You might pay more toward balances that have the highest interest rates. Or you might consider refinancing or consolidation options as well. Beyond that, though, you really want to start thinking about your long-term financial goals, identifying and prioritizing your goals, calculating how much you might need to fund those goals, and implementing a plan that accounts for those goals. Having a plan in place can help you with your stress levels, both now and in the future.
5. Get help
Always remember that you don’t need to handle this alone. If the emotional support of a spouse, friends, or family isn’t enough, or the level of stress that you’re feeling is just too much, know that there is help available. Consider talking to your primary-care physician, a mental health professional, or an employee assistance resource, for example.
A financial professional can also be a valuable resource in helping you work through some of the steps discussed here, and can help direct you to other sources of assistance, like credit or debt counseling services, depending on your needs.
The most important thing to keep in mind is that you have the ability to control the amount of financial stress in your life.
1,3,4 American Psychological Association, “Stress in America™: Paying with Our Health,” www.stressinamerica.org, February 4, 2015
2 Mayo Clinic Staff, “Stress Symptoms: Effects on Your Body and Behavior,” www.mayoclinic.org, July 19, 2013
What is asset allocation?
Each type of investment has specific strengths and weaknesses that enable it to play a specific role in your overall investing strategy. Some investments may offer growth potential. Others may provide regular income or relative safety, or simply serve as a temporary place to park your money. And some investments may even serve to fill more than one role. Because you likely have multiple needs and objectives, you probably need some combination of investment types, or asset classes.
Balancing how much of each asset class should be included in your portfolio is a critical task. The balance between growth, income, and safety is determined by your asset allocation, and it can help you manage the level and types of risks you face.
The combination of investments you choose can be as important as your specific investments. Your mix of various asset classes such as stocks, bonds, and cash alternatives generally accounts for most of the ups and downs of your portfolio’s returns.
Ideally, your portfolio should have an overall combination of investments that minimizes the risk you take in trying to achieve a targeted rate of return. This often means balancing conservative investments against others that are designed to provide a higher potential return but also involve more risk. However, asset allocation doesn’t guarantee a profit or eliminate the possibility of investment loss.
Someone living on a fixed income, whose priority is having a regular stream of money coming in, will probably need a very different asset allocation than a young, well-to-do working professional whose priority is saving for a retirement that’s 30 years away. Even if two people are the same age and have similar incomes, they may have very different needs and goals, and their asset allocations should be tailored to their unique circumstances.
And remember, even if your asset allocation was appropriate for you when you chose it, it may not be appropriate for you now. It should change as your circumstances do and as new ways to invest are introduced. A piece of clothing you wore 10 years ago may not fit now; you just might need to update your asset allocation, too.
What is the Roth 401(k) five-year rule?
The Roth 401(k) five-year rule determines when you can begin receiving tax-free qualified distributions from your 401(k) plan Roth account. While it’s similar to the five-year rule that applies to Roth IRAs, there are important differences.
Withdrawals from your Roth 401(k) plan account–including both your contributions and any investment earnings–are completely tax and penalty free if you satisfy a five-year holding period and one of the following also applies:
- You’ve reached age 59½
- You have a qualifying disability, or
- The withdrawal is made by your beneficiary or estate after your death
The five-year holding period begins on the first day of the calendar year in which you make your first Roth 401(k) contribution (regular or rollover) to the plan. For example, if you make your first Roth contribution to your company’s 401(k) plan in December 2015, your five-year holding period begins on January 1, 2015, and ends on December 31, 2019.
If you participate in 401(k) plans maintained by different employers, your five-year holding period is determined separately for each plan. But there’s an important exception. If you make a direct rollover of Roth dollars from your prior employer’s plan to your new employer’s plan, your five-year holding period for the new plan will be deemed to start with the year you made your first Roth contribution to the prior plan.
For example, Beth made Roth contributions to the Acme 401(k) plan beginning in 2011. In 2015, she changed jobs and began making Roth contributions to the Beacon 401(k) plan. Her five-year holding period for the Acme plan began on January 1, 2011, and ends on December 31, 2015. Her five-year holding period for the Beacon plan began on January 1, 2015, and ends on December 31, 2019. In 2015, Beth decides to make a direct rollover of her Acme Roth account to Beacon’s 401(k) plan. Because of the rollover, Beth’s January 1, 2011, starting date at Acme will carry over to the Beacon plan, and any distributions she receives from her Beacon Roth account after 2015 (rather than 2018) will be tax free (assuming she’s at least age 59½ or disabled at the time of distribution).
IRS Circular 230 disclosure: To ensure compliance with requirements imposed by the IRS, we inform you that any tax advice contained in this communication (including any attachments) was not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, for the purpose of (i) avoiding tax-related penalties under the Internal Revenue Code or (ii) promoting, marketing or recommending to another party any matter addressed herein.
Prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. Copyright 2015